School refusal is a behaviour that can be associated with a range of family and school factors accompanied by anxiety, sadness or depression, physical symptoms and social isolation. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with school refusal. [BLND], D5. The first line of treatment for school refusers should be CBT. This proposed systematic review will expand and improve upon prior work in several ways. CBT may be more effective if used prescriptively and tailored to the individual child. What did the control/comparison group receive? Therefore, teen anxiety is one reason why a teenager refuses to go to school. Please list their names: I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, School refusal: Family constellation and family functioning, The prescriptive treatment of school refusal, Synthesizing research: A guide for literature reviews, School refusal and psychiatric disorders: A community study, Bias in meta‐analysis detected by a simple, graphical test, Practitioner review: School refusal: Issues of conceptualization, assessment, and treatment, School refusal in children and adolescents, School refusal: Epidemiology and management, Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A meta‐analysis, School refusal behavior in youth: A functional approach to assessment and treatment, Forms and function of school refusal behavior in youth: An empirical analysis of absenteeism severity, An interdisciplinary model of school absenteeism in youth to inform professional practice and public policy, Addressing school refusal behavior: Suggestions for frontline professionals, School refusal in children and adolescents: A review of the past 10 years, Cognitive‐behavioral treatments for anxiety and phobic disorders in children and adolescents: A review, Research on the cognitive‐behavioral treatment of school refusal: A review and recommendations, Cognitive‐behavioral treatment of school‐refusing children: A controlled evaluation, School refusal in anxiety‐ disordered children and adolescents, Anxiety and depressive disorders in fathers and mothers of anxious school‐refusing children, Behavioral theories and treatment of anxiety, Understanding School Refusal: A Handbook for Professionals in Education, Health and Social Care, Ishikawa, Okajima, Hirofumi, & Sakano, 2007. Login failed. [FFRMT]. It comes as … The Q statistic is calculated by adding the squared deviations of each study's effect size from the mean effect size, weighting their contribution by its inverse variance. Pharmacologic treatment of school refusal should be used in conjunction with behavioral or psychotherapeu- tic interventions, not as the sole intervention. Were follow‐up data collected on this measure? School refusal is a psychosocial problem associated with adverse short- and long-term consequences for children and adolescents. t‐value from an independent t‐test or square root of from a one‐way analysis of variance (df 1)________ F‐value        [ES‐T], E37. Treatment for school refusal among children and adolescents: a … ALL people over 18 'could be vaccinated by June', while tightened quarantine rules may come in as part of a crackdown on foreign travel. Who provided the services? school refusal assessment and treatment Oct 11, 2020 Posted By Nora Roberts Public Library TEXT ID f396b524 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library practical assessment and treatment issues marcella i lee raymond g miltenberger north dakota state university abstract this paper discusses diagnostic classification and To further our theoretical understanding of school refusal and its treatment, studies should include measures of factors held to mediate outcome. The strategies employed by these approaches range from providing information and supportive psychotherapy to assist students in understanding and overcoming their fears and anxieties about school, to family therapy techniques aimed at changing family functioning and dynamics that are hypothesized to contribute to the child's anxiety and difficulty attending school—such as family conflict, enmeshed or detached family relationships, and fear and anxiety of the parents. Types of settings: The review will include interventions conducted in any setting that serves primary or secondary school students. This site uses cookies. Authors should not publish Campbell reviews in journals before they are ready for publication in the Campbell Library. School refusal is a serious issue and needs to be managed early, as long absences mean that children miss out on important parts of the curriculum. I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. Prior reviews of school refusal intervention research have been limited to published research and have primarily employed either qualitative or vote‐counting methods for synthesizing study outcomes. Consultation with school personnel and parents: Calling a truce to assist the youth. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. A draft review must be submitted to the relevant Coordinating Group within two years of protocol publication. Assigned N for comparison group____________        [ASSNCG], E10. Learn about our remote access options. Type of report (SELECT ONE)        [PUBTP], A2. Some studies may measure outcomes at time points following the posttest measure which will be considered as follow‐up measures. Time period: This review will include studies published between 1980 and the present, even though the research itself might have been conducted prior to 1980. CBT findings were mixed‐ one showing clinically significant improvement in school attendance compared to wait‐list control and one showing improvement, but no differences between CBT and educational support therapy. Comparison group standard deviation___________        [ESCGSD], E36. Comparison group mean:____________        [CGM], E15. No, presented multiple problems with fidelity, 4. Mean age of participants        [AGE], B2. Yes, presented strong fidelity to the model, 2. Describe the program/intervention        [TXDESC], C3. C10. Skills training to enhance parenting and problem‐solving skills are often included as well (Elliot, 1999; Fremont, 2003; Kearney & Bates, 2005). Master's or doctoral therapists generally deliver school refusal behavior interventions to children individually or in a group setting and to parents in the form of parental skills training. How often does your child have bad feelings about going to school because he/she is afraid of something re-lated to school (for example, tests, school … Assigned N for treatment group___________        [ASSNTX], E9. Authors should remember to include the statement: “This is a version of a Campbell review, which is available in The Campbell Library” when publishing in journals or other venues. Psychosocial interventions for youth who exhibit school refusal behavior generally fall into one of four categories: behavioral approaches, cognitive‐behavioral therapy (CBT), family therapy, and non‐behavioral, non‐CBT individual therapy. Behavioral interventions for the treatment of school refusal typically employ relaxation training, exposure‐based strategies, contingency management, and/or social skill training techniques to reduce the children's fears and anxiety and help them return to school. Based on prior theory and research, the following moderators will be examined for their influence on effect sizes: 1) treatment modality; 2) treatment duration; 3) theoretical basis of intervention (e.g., CBT, family systems, etc. Medical, clinical and systematic intervenetions have demonstrated effectiveness. Assessment of school refusal behavior: Examining the motivating conditions underlying school absence. The following research questions guide this study: We propose to include all studies that meet the inclusion criteria outlined above. Most potentially eligible studies include both pretest and posttest measurements. By completing this form, you accept responsibility for preparing, maintaining and updating the review in accordance with Campbell Collaboration policy. Results of statistical comparisons of pretest differences        [STCOMP], D8. Analysis will be conducted using Comprehensive Meta‐Analysis 2.2 (CMA) when possible. Children who present with school refusal may meet criteria for multiple internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, including anxiety, depression, phobia, separation anxiety, aggression, temper trantrums, and non‐compliance (Egger, Costello, & Angold, 2003; Heyne et al., 2001; Kearney, 2001). The article deals with systemic-family therapeutic implications of differential diagnostics of school refusal behavior. (. school refusal? Individual factors associated with school refusal include personality characteristics, such as introversion, temperament, low self‐confidence, and behavioral inhibition (Thambirajah et al., 2008). Calculated standard error of the effect size_______        [ESSE], E27. 2. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (P) Name: Date: Please select the answer that best fits the following questions: . Socio‐economic status‐ free or reduced lunch        [SES1], B6. School health professionals are often an essential component of successful treatment. Psychosocial interventions for reducing school refusal behavior can vary in format, duration, setting, treatment components, and intervention targets. A. C. (, King, N., Tonge, B. J., Heyne, D., Ollendick, T. H. (, King, N. J., Ollendick, T. H., Tonge, B. J. Authors recommend strategies based on three categories of school refusers. However, a Campbell systematic review should be published either before, or at the same time as, its publication in other journals. A test of homogeneity (Q‐test) will be conducted to compare the observed variance to what would be expected from sampling error. Treatment components can vary as well. Children and parents experience significant adverse consequences from school refusal. We are interested in two primary outcomes for this review: attendance and anxiety. Has the instrument that measured this construct demonstrated reliability and validity in this sample or similar samples OR use of public agency administrative data, behavioral or biological measures? Did the researchers present evidence that suggests that the program was        [FIMP], C16. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Comprehensive treatment of school refusal, including psychiatric and medical evaluation when appropriate, is important since studies show that psychiatric disorders are the cause for a large percentage of students who fail to complete high school in the United States. Publication bias will be assessed using the trim and fill procedure, and the resulting funnel plot produced in CMA will be visually inspected. School refusal peaks at several points of development, including with entry into Kindergarten, between ages 7-9, and again with entry into Middle or High School. For parents, CBT is generally designed to help parents understand their role and reduce anxiety and faulty cognitions that may be contributing to their child's anxiety and refusal behavior. Exposure‐based interventions, such as systematic desensitization and flooding, have also been utilized in the treatment of school refusal behavior. Did the authors provide any information about the statistical significance of the difference between the two groups on this dependent variable? Although there is a lack of consistency in the literature regarding the operationalization of school refusal, this review will adopt the definition of school refusal as school non‐attendance associated with anxiety or distress. Are the above means adjusted? ~~ Free Reading School Refusal Assessment And Treatment ~~ Uploaded By Mary Higgins Clark, treatment of school refusal includes several psychological approaches including cognitive behavior therapy along with systematic desensitization exposure therapy and operant behavioral techniques cognitive behavior therapy derived from Describe what happened to the control/comparison group        [CGTXDESC], D2. * Last Version School Refusal Assessment And Treatment * Uploaded By Laura Basuki, treatment of school refusal includes several psychological approaches including cognitive behavior therapy along with systematic desensitization exposure therapy and operant behavioral techniques cognitive behavior therapy derived from behavior Access to society journal content varies across our titles. In addition, studies must either match on pretests, risk factors, and/or other relevant characteristics, use statistical controls, or report baseline data to examine group equivalence. school refusing children are outlined with practical suggestions and clinical tips for each treatment procedure school refusal assessment and treatment school refusal occurs when a student will not go to school or frequently experiences severe distress related to school attendance comprehensive treatment of school refusal including psychiatric Practical Recommendations and Interventions: School Refusal 2 relax, imagine riding the bus, then walking into class, etc.). Teen Anxiety, Teen Depression, and School Refusal. By continuing to browse Types of studies: To be eligible for inclusion in the review, studies must use an experimental or quasi‐experimental design. 4. (, *King, N. J., Tonge, B. J., Heyne, D., Pritchard, M., Rollings, S., Young, D.…Ollendick, T. H. (, Manassis, K., Lee, T. C., Bennett, K., Zhao, X. Y., Mendlowitz, S., Duda, S.…Wood, J. Did the provider receive special training on the intervention? The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Was the equivalence of groups tested at pretest? Cognitive‐behavioral interventions may be delivered individually or in group settings. A number of narrative reviews on the topic of school refusal behavior are available and summarized in Appendix A. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Calculated effect size ________        [ES], E19. Moreover, the existing reviews of school refusal behavior have tended to focus on CBT interventions. The Campbell Collaboration will provide as much support as possible to assist with the preparation of the review. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Comparison group standard deviation___________        [CGSD], E18. Socio‐economic status‐ Description        [SES2], B7. We will use Comprehensive Meta‐Analysis 2.2 to conduct meta‐analysis. Main effects and moderator analysis will be conducted separately on each outcome construct with the latter done as multivariate (meta‐regression) analysis when possible. A., Viswesvaran, C. (, Thambirajah, M. S., Grandison, K. J., De-Hayes, L. (, Tolin, D. F., Whiting, S., Maltby, N., Diefenbach, G. J., Lothstein, M. A., Hardcastle, S.…Gray, K. (, Walter, D., Hautmann, C., Rizk, S., Petermann, M., Minkus, J., Sinzig, J.…Doepfner, M. (, *Wu, X., Liu, F., Cai, H., Huang, L., Li, Y., Mo, Z., Lin, J. (, Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., Rothstein, H. (, Buitelaar, J. K., van Andel, H., Duyx, J. H., van Strien, D. C. (, Christle, C. A., Jolivette, K., Nelson, C. M. (, Egger, H. L., Costello, E. J., Angold, A. Role of the evaluator/author/research team or staff in the program. Children and adolescents who school refuse can very quickly become entrenched in a long-term pattern of school refusal, which can have major long-term impacts for them and their family. Additionally, the analysis will attempt to identify the characteristics of the study methods, interventions, and student samples that are associated with larger and smaller effects on the various outcome constructs. School refusal can be addressed through several types of psychological therapy. Interventions are most commonly delivered in a school or clinic setting. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. The I2 statistic will also be used to describe the percentage of total variation across studies due to the heterogeneity rather than chance. Further, explicitly and transparently describing the review process allows for others to replicate and expand the review to include new studies or criteria. Focal component‐ Use the same numbering system above to select [FCOMP] the ONE program type that can be considered the focal program characteristic. Relaxation training involves teaching children to employ strategies to relax or calm themselves when presented with stressful or anxiety provoking situations. [PR‐TRN], C7. Posttest measurements generally occur at the end of the intervention. Observed N for comparison group:_____________        [OBNCOMP], E31. What is the name of the intervention received by treatment group? Currently, CMA 2.2 only allows for meta‐regression with continuous scaled variables. Although most school refusal interventions involve CBT, they employ a number of different strategies that vary from program to program. [LENGTH]. [DEC]. In the case of school refusal behavior, relaxation training is employed as a means of reducing feelings of psychological and physiological arousal and somatic symptoms associated with school or separation from a parent (King, Heyne, & Ollendick, 2005). Stay as calm as you can, taking your child’s worries seriously and listening to how they’re feeling. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Although behavioural and cognitive behavioural approaches are now widely accepted as central to treatment, it is increasingly recognised that individually tailored programmes, utilising a range of approaches, are most likely to prove successful. Calculated effect size ________        [ES], E38. Scholars have described school refusal behavior fairly consistently, with a few exceptions (e.g., Kearney, 2008), as a subtype of nonattender: students who have attendance difficulties resulting from emotional distress. We will exclude studies in which participants have dropped out of school. While the functional treatment of school refusal has been identified as a promising approach (Kearney & Silverman, 1990; 1999), to date, this intervention lacks rigorous evaluation. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. ~~ Free eBook School Refusal Assessment And Treatment ~~ Uploaded By Nora Roberts, treatment of school refusal includes several psychological approaches including cognitive behavior therapy along with systematic desensitization exposure therapy and operant behavioral techniques cognitive behavior therapy derived from behavior Types of outcomes: To be included, a study must assess intervention effects on school attendance and anxiety. Thus, meta‐analysis provides information about the strength and importance of a relationship, the magnitude of the effects of the interventions, and the characteristics of effective interventions. If you determine no one component could be identified as the focal, then code 88. [STSIG], E7. We will select the measure that has better psychometric properties, or, if there is a measure that is commonly used across several studies to measure the same construct, we will retain the effect size for the analysis using the common measure. Frequency of contact between participants and provider        [FRQ], C13. A., Gonzales, N. A., Ortiz, C. D. (, Prabhuswamy, M., Srinath, S., Girimaji, S., Seshadri, S. (, Silverman, W. K., Pina, A. Stressors implicated in the onset of school refusal behavior include illness, problematic family dynamics, traumatic experiences, and school‐related factors (Kearney & Bates, 2005). Somewhat‐ presented some problems with fidelity, but reasonably well implemented, 3. For more information, call our Partial Hospitalization Program intake coordinator at 720-777-7794. [MATCH], D6. If groups were non‐equivalent, were statistical controls used? Random effects statistical models will be used throughout unless a compelling case arises for fixed effect analysis. School refusal is a more serious condition than separation anxiety. In addition to severe emotional upset, researchers have differentiated school refusal from truancy in terms of two other features: children who exhibit school refusal behavior remain at home with their parents' knowledge, and they do not exhibit characteristics of conduct disorder (Elliot, 1999; Heyne, King, Tonge, & Cooper, 2001). In addition, CBT for parents and families can involve training parents to use behavior management strategies to reinforce their children's return to school. If there are an adequate number of studies with longitudinal follow‐up, we will examine changes in effect sizes over time. Treatment group mean:____________        [TXM], E13. Educational and supportive therapy has been show to be effective; medication has been mixed. This review will not include studies conducted in residential facilities, as these settings are highly controlled and not typical of regular school settings. This paper addresses the problem of school phobia, one of the most common childhood anxiety disorders. Observed N for comparison group:_____________        [OBNCG], E12. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. School of Social Work Saint Louis University, % Males________(use 999 if not enough information to determine), % receiving free or reduced school lunch__________, Brief description of SES composition of the sample, _________________________________________________________________________________, ______________________________________________________________________________, (child and parent if both involved)______________, 1. All psychosocial interventions that aim to increase attendance and decrease anxiety in school‐age youth who exhibit school refusal behavior will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The coders will consult the first author if they cannot resolve coding discrepancies, and the first author will make the final coding decision. CBT has been effective, but not for all. More than ¼ of all youth will engage in some degree of school refusal during their schooling years, ranging from complaints and threats to avoid school, to missing school for months or even years at a time. Social skills training frequently focuses on teaching assertiveness and other social skills through the use of modelling and rehearsal of strategies; such skills should help children better prepare for and cope with social interactions with peers or teachers and reduce social anxiety. Grade level of participants        [GRD], B3. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. know the primary reason that school refusal is being maintained is very helpful to therapists, parents and teachers for information regarding comorbid conditions and treatment guidelines (Kearney, 2002; Kearney & Albano, 2000; see Table 1). “At first glance, our review of research suggests empirical support for CB therapy in the tx of SR.” When they applied stringent criteria regarding evidentiary support for psychosocial interventions (outlined by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures), “empirical support for the well‐established status of CBT is found wanting”. Outcome: attendance OR absen∗ OR anxiety OR “school refus∗” OR “school phobia” OR “school anxiety”, Intervention: evaluation OR intervention OR treatment OR outcome OR program, Targeted population: student∗ OR school∗ OR child∗ OR adolescen∗. Concluded that each treatment modality did not have enough evidence of effectiveness. Summary and descriptive statistics of the study‐level contextual characteristics, methodological quality characteristics, and participant and intervention characteristics will be used to describe the included studies. What was the primary setting of the program? [AUTHRL], C6. 1. If necessary, additional sensitivity analysis will be conducted if other issues arise that may impede our confidence in the estimated pooled effect size estimates. Chronicity of absenteeism at baseline (% of days/year absent)        [CHRON], C1. E33. The prevalence of school refusal behavior is difficult to ascertain, due to the discrepancy in how school refusal is defined and lack of any national reporting; however, most researchers estimate that less than 5% of school‐age children exhibit school refusal behavior (Burke & Silverman, 1987; Elliott, 1999; Fremont, 2003; King, Ollendick, & Tonge, 1995; Ollendick & Mayer, 1984). Select the treatment group that receives the treatment that is specified by the authors as being the focal program/intervention under investigation or the one that is expected by authors to be most effective. Was the data collector blind to the group assignment? Were follow‐up data collected on this measure? Significant effects were found for attendance but not for anxiety. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Lean Library can solve it. (SELECT ALL THAT APPLY)        [SVPRO], C5. Observed N for treatment group_________        [OBNTX], E30. 's Regression Test (1997) will also be used to assess the possibility of publication bias. Greater coordination and synthesis of research needed. The program aims to identify reasons for school refusal, develop a comprehensive treatment plan to address school refusing behavior and help transition kids back into an academic environment. A child may miss an excessive number of days of school, leading to poor academic performance and disruptions in social and extracurricular activities (King & Bernstein, 2001). If matching was used, how were groups matched? Treatment consisted of individual child cognitive‐behavioral therapy plus parent/teacher training in child behavior management skills. Observed N for treatment group_________        [OBNTX], E11. The authors will make every attempt to translate studies in languages other than English for inclusion in the review. The student’s support team should work together to create a suitable re … Individual, family, and school context appear to be important to understanding the causes as well as the maintenance of school refusal behavior. Although there have been systematic reviews and meta‐analyses conducted on the effects of interventions for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders (see Brendel, 2011; Ishikawa, Okajima, Hirofumi, & Sakano, 2007), we have not located a systematic review or meta‐analysis of interventions focused specifically on school refusal behavior. Treatment for School Refusal Most kids, when given the choice, would prefer to stay home rather than attend school, however, when school is in session, they go with little resistance. Are the above means adjusted? In which study was conducted [ CNTRY ], C14 can download article citation data to group! Specifically on outcomes of interventions read only version of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to model. Rewards to attend school or clinic setting models include educational‐support strategies and non‐cbt individual and family.! With longitudinal follow‐up, we will examine the effects of psychosocial treatments for refusers! 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This broader reach will allow for the possibility of identifying studies that have focused more specifically on outcomes interventions. The onset of school refusal from hundreds of trustworthy sources for health and social care and! The situation may feel stressful, don ’ t shout, tell off. To condition ( s ) [ PUBTP ], C5 school refusal treatment protocol meta‐analysis methods included a! 2.2 ( CMA ) when possible on download the trim and fill procedure, and intervention targets browse the you... Apply ) [ CHRON ], E12 analyzed separately are ready for publication in other journals and acceptability behavioral. Mild school refusal behavior are an adequate number of studies with longitudinal follow‐up, we use...