Epidemiology, 26(6), 779-780. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000382, Maher, B. Checking the reasonableness of the data, such as consistency with physical principles and comparison with data obtained by independent methods; and. Our system, developed with open source roots, shifts the paradigm of data science workflows by providing reproducibility, data provenance, and opportunity for true collaboration. The International Vocabulary of Metrology Metrology (VIM) (2012) (International Vocabulary of Metrology – Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms, 2012) is used by the international metrology community and provides definitions for many terms related to the current concerns about reproducibility. But, like the many small grains of sand that make up a beach, taking small steps to improve reproducibility in your own experiments can have a large impact on solving the bigger problem. Retrieved from https://rd-alliance.org/groups/persistent-identification-instruments, Rosslein, M., Elliott, J. T., Salit, M., Petersen, E. J., Hirsch, C., Krug, H. F., & Wick, P. (2015). Introduction. Nowadays the practical realisation of the metre is possible everywhere thanks to the atomic clocks embedded in GPS satellites. Modern page with custom branding coming from theme settings. (2016). Materials Science and Technology Society. A requirement for effective metadata sharing is the development of better methods of harmonized vocabularies possibly through the use of natural language methods (Bhat, Bartolo, Kattner, Campbell, & Elliott, 2015). Nature, 533(7604), 452-454. https://doi.org/10.1038/533452a. In 1886 the association of geodesy changed name for the International Geodetic Association, which Carlos Ibáñez e Ibáñez de Ibero presided up to his death in 1891. [18][19][20][21], As a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures. Modern processors, which may dynamically assign resources, such as variable numbers of processors, do not guarantee the same order of summation from run-to-run of the same program or subroutine. Terminologies for Reproducible Research. In measurement science, a measurement consists of a value and the uncertainty around that value. Reproducibility, and the development of predictive models, suffer when the growth and processing history of a material is not fully documented, when unknown (and hence unmeasured) effects impact properties, or when significant instrumental parameters are hidden in proprietary binary data formats. This code can be anything (statistical analysis, numerical simulation, data processing, etc. [38][43][44][45][46][47], Efforts to supplement the various national surveying systems, which begun in the 19th century with the foundation of the Mitteleuropäische Gradmessung, resulted in a series of global ellipsoids of the Earth (e.g., Helmert 1906, Hayford 1910 and 1924) which would later lead to develop the World Geodetic System. A caliper is prone to error described by “Abbé’s principle,” which says that a source of error is introduced anytime the reference line of a measuring system doesn’t lie along the same line as the dimension being measured.  NIST supports accurate and comparable measurements by producing and providing Standard Reference Instruments.  Reference instruments allow customers the ability to make reference measurements or generate reference responses in their facilities based on specific NIST reference instrument designs.  These instruments support assurance of measurements of time, voltage, temperature, etc. A simple mnemonic aid exists to assist with conversion, as three "3"s: The ancient Egyptian cubit was about 0.5 m (surviving rods are 523–529 mm). [64], After the July Revolution of 1830 the metre became the definitive French standard from 1840. Dark uncertainty. This definition fixed the speed of light in vacuum at exactly 299792458 metres per second (≈300000 km/s). Accreditation and Quality Assurance, 16, 483-487. Adapted from Plant et al. Calibration services. NIST (2019) provides the highest order of calibration services for instruments and devices available in the United States satisfying the most demanding and explicit criteria for quality assurance. And when they fudge their data, their results are irreproducible. Continuous clinical data in epidemiological studies are often collected with some measurement error,1–4 with the value recorded for any one individual differing from their true underlying value. We employ information theoretic measures to study word order in a parallel corpus of 18 texts across 7 modern Indo-European languages. Verify/qualify the software used in support of experiments and analysis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2004299, Plant, A. L., Locascio, L. E., May, W. E., & Gallagher, P. D. (2014). Reproducible research in computational science. (2018). There are no easy answers for how to determine when the result of a complex study is sufficiently reproduced.  Metrology laboratories spend significant effort in measurement comparisons, establishing consensus values, using reference materials, and determining confidence limits. This work is especially challenging when the measurements themselves are complicated or the measurand is poorly defined. Thompson, M. E., S.L.R. Particularly difficult is the collection and reporting of details of protocols used in studies that involve complex experimental systems. Improved metadata acquisition software incorporated into laboratory information management systems could facilitate the collecting, sharing, and reporting of details of protocols. The Research Data Alliance has recently started a new Working Group on Persistent Identification of Instruments (2017), which for experimental data could greatly improve provenance through tracing data back to a particular instrument and its associated calibration information. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 45(4), 816-838. https://doi.org/10.1021/ci0500067b, Genome in a bottle (GIAB). With a preface and notes on the Greek and Egyptian measures of length by Sir Henry James", "Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences / publiés... par MM. Errors in the theoretical formulas used are secondary. We suggest that while reproducibility can be an important hallmark of good science, it is not often the most important indicator. Nature. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Including large system sizes increases the accuracy of the results, but also the runtime and the amount of data produced and one might need to use large computer clusters. Thompson, P. M. (2017). As well, 70% of them also affirmed that they did not succeed to reproduce the results reported by their peers. (2018). Journal of Open Research Software, 2(1), e21. Putting a numerical value on concordance under these circumstances is challenging. Solving the reproducibility crisis is a substantial task that requires coordination and input from all researchers. WhatIs.com. Repeatability (replicates in series) and reproducibility on different days and in different labs. One metre is exactly equivalent to 5 000/127 inches and to 1 250/1 143 yards. As an example of their potential universality, the terms of the VIM have been explicitly adapted to provide a useful guide for geoscience research (Potts, 2008). Dipping and withdrawing has to be performed smoothly in order to avoid tidemarks. The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But the Truth: A Pragmatic Guide to Assessing Empirical Evaluations. [12], In 1671 Jean Picard measured the length of a "seconds pendulum" (a pendulum with a period of two seconds) at the Paris observatory. This range of uses is also found in Latin (metior, mensura), French (mètre, mesure), English and other languages. Nat Methods, 11(9), 895-898. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.3076, Possolo, A. Availability of data, metadata, and provenance information. Retrieved from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/fishbone-diagram, Stodden, V. M., S. (2014). Retrieved from http://jupyter.org/, Keating, S. M., Taylor, D. L., Plant, A. L., Litwack, E. D., Kuhn, P., Greenspan, E. J., … Kuida, K. (2018). The results of the control wells were expected to be within a specified range to assure confidence in the test result. The SI unit symbol is m.The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1 / 299 792 458 of a second. One project underway is focused on identifying the presence of supporting data out of published research reports (McIntosh, 2017). Sorted “subpopulations” will relax over time in culture to a stable distribution similar to the original distribution. b.     State the experimental design, including variables to be tested, numbers of samples, statistical models to be used, how sampling is performed, etc. ", thus calls for both measurement and moderation. Glossary of Analytical and Metrological Terms from the International Vocabulary of Metrology Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 36(3), 225-324. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.2011.00121.x, Reproducibility Initiative. RMs and SRMs, Calibration Services, and Standard Reference Instruments provide confidence in primary measurements, and also in the instruments and materials that underpin the primary laboratory or field measurement, such as temperature sensors, pH meters, photodetectors, and light sources.   Â. Interlaboratory comparison studies.  NIST leads and participates in Interlaboratory comparison studies as part of their official role in the international metrology community (BIPM), and in less formal studies. An example of a less formal study involving NIST was a comparison with five laboratories to identify and mitigate sources of uncertainty in a multistep protocol to measure the toxicity (EC50) of nanoparticles in a cell-based assay. The current definition was adopted in 1983 and modified slightly in 2002 to clarify that the metre is a measure of proper length. b.     Ensure that experimental equipment is responding correctly (e.g., through use of calibration materials and verification of vendor specifications). Measurement science, or metrology, is the study of how measurements are made, and how data are compared. Evaluation of measurement data — Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. For most things in science, we're moderately comfortable with a risk of 0.05 (or 5 percent chance) – it means there's a good chance your hypothesis is a true reflection of the world. Knowledge management. (2011). Replicate the measurement in your own lab, perhaps with different personnel. a.     Justify the basis for the selected statistical analyses. It is the property of the American Philosophical Society, to whom it was presented by Mr. Hassler, who had received it from Tralles, a member of the French Committee charged with the construction of the standard metre by comparison with the toise, which had served as unit of length in the measurement of the meridional arcs in France and Peru. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac4716. Lost or Found? The sources of variability in a measurement system and how they contribute to measurement uncertainty is an importance concept in measurement science.  The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is the national metrology institute (NMI) of the United States, and its 100-plus sister laboratories in other countries, promote these concepts for ensuring confidence in measurement results. Identity vs. a numerical value. While DNA sequencing is not the only case, it is a good example of where the identity of the bases and their relative locations is the measurand. A NIST-hosted consortium called Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) (2016) has been working for several years to amass sufficient data that would allow an evaluation of the quality of data that can be achieved by different laboratories. The discipline of metrology, or measurement science, describes a measurement result as a value and the uncertainty around that value. [82] The Russian verst was 1.0668 km. At that time it had already been adopted by Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler for the U.S Survey of the Coast. Retrieved from ASCL.net, Bajcsy, P., Cardone, A., Chalfoun, J., Halter, M., Juba, D., Kociolek, M., … Brady, M. (2015). The metre or meter (symbol: m) is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). Retrieved from https://www.bipm.org/utils/common/documents/jcgm/JCGM_100_2008_E.pdf, Bishop, D. (2019). Reference instruments. While these best practices are directed at measurements of biological systems, they are sufficiently general to be applicable to most experimental situations. Achieving the knowledge of these measurement elements requires a high level of understanding of, and experience with, the measurement system. Reporting these characteristics for a measurement system has advantages for both the experimentalist and for the user of the resulting data by providing documented evidence that there is a high level of confidence in the accuracy of the resulting measurements. Establishing that a result has been reproduced or not can be complicated. Especially when different instrumentation is used, the exact value of a complex measurement may not be identical to that achieved by another laboratory. If an expanded uncertainty was determined, as is done when national metrology laboratories compare their measurements, then a comparison could be made, but this may not happen in a typical research environment given the complicated nature of many of the studies being performed. Human cell line authentication is an example where a committee had to arbitrarily establish a threshold of similarity in the identification of the size and number of short tandem repeat (STR) sequences. Above 75% concordance in STR sequences identified was determined to be sufficient for identification (American Type Culture Collection Standards Development Organization Workgroup, 2010). This threshold reflects the incomplete state of understanding of the sources of differences in the sequence lengths, not necessarily to poor quality of the raw data. Although concerns have been expressed about the reliability of surface temperature data sets, findings of pronounced surface warming over the past 60 years have been independently reproduced by multiple groups. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature.2015.17354, Baker, M. (2016). Keywords: measurement science, reproducibility, sources of uncertainty, comparability, data, metadata. Distinguish inherent biological heterogeneity from measurement variability. The BIPM's thermometry work led to the discovery of special alloys of iron-nickel, in particular invar, for which its director, the Swiss physicist Charles-Edouard Guillaume, was granted the Nobel Prize for physics in 1920. The complexity of modern numerical experiments makes it necessary for the author himself to keep track meticulously of what he has done: "In the mid 1980's, we noticed that a few months after completing a project, the researchers at our laboratory were usually unable to reproduce their own computational work without considerable agony." Retrieved from PM:21674772, Frenkel, M., Chirico, R. D., Diky, V., Yan, X. J., Dong, Q., & Muzny, C. (2005). (Precision is the consistency of the instrument output for a given value of input). Gaithersburg, MD Retrieved from https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication260-136.pdf, McIntosh, L., et al. Closeness of agreement between a measured quantity value and a true quantity value of a measurand. Below, we suggest how concepts associated with evaluation of uncertainty might assist assessment of concordance in research results that are difficult to compare. In this article, we consider what reproducibility means from a measurement science point of view, and what the appropriate role of reproducibility is in assessing the quality of research. Bhat, T. N., Bartolo, L. M., Kattner, U. R., Campbell, C. E., & Elliott, J. T. (2015). The history of the family is a branch of social history that concerns the sociocultural evolution of kinship groups from prehistoric to modern times. (2012). c.      Collect and archive metadata that provide documentation related to process details, reagents, and other variables; include with numerical data as part of the dataset. Even as the clinical impact of drug combinations continues to accelerate, no consensus on how to quantify drug synergy has emerged. A network of investigator networks in human genome epidemiology. Boisvert, R. F., & International Federation for Information Processing. PSYCHOLOGY. Yet the degree of taxonomic consistency among the practitioners and the effects of any potential deviations on community structure metrics have never been quantitatively assessed. Measure within day (repeatability) and day-to-day (reproducibility). Underpinning measurements that establish confidence. The editorial is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) International license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), except where otherwise indicated with respect to particular material included in the article. Reproducibility is a measure of the variability that's due to the operator that's actually using the gauge or the instrument. As such, it aims to increase the European Commission’s understanding of the lack of reproducibility in Europe, and help design a suitable response in the context of EU Research & Innovation. Table 5.  Key elements of a good measurement. Our system, developed with open source roots, shifts the paradigm of data science workflows by providing reproducibility, data provenance, and opportunity for true collaboration. Promote data stewardship and software development activities as career positions integral to the advancement of science. The calculation of an expanded uncertainty takes into account all sources of uncertainty at every stage of the measurement. In a research setting, the formalism of such a calculation is rarely necessary, but acknowledging and addressing sources of uncertainty are critical. Regardless of discipline, at each step of a scientific study we should be able to identify the potential sources of uncertainty, including measurement uncertainty, and report the activities that went into reducing the uncertainties inherent in the study. One might argue that the testing of assumptions and the characterization of the components of a study are as important to report as are the ultimate results of the study. 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Statistical models not confounded by sample composition or physical characteristics national Academies of,. And shape a temperature sensor ( e.g to spraying temperature sensor (.... All variants of English of investigator networks in human Genome epidemiology there are a number of wavelengths a...