The leaves and growth points can be picked and used as a vegetable dish similar to spinach, but it can also be dried and used as a protein substitute. (IPM CRSP, 2000). However, farmers in South Africa currently lack good seed for planting and experience very low cowpea grain yields. Cowpea is an important grain legume in South Africa after groundnuts and dry beans (Asiwe, 2009). Small-scale farmers grow cowpea intercropped with maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane and cotton. Cowpea silage is made by using cowpea leaves mixed with the green leaves of maize or sorghum and then compacting the green matter, covering it with plastic and weighing it down to make it airtight. therefore has a beneficial effect on the follow-up crop. The best feeding value for animals can be obtained in stands where cowpeas were intercropped with maize. Cowpea is attacked by various Insect pests, during different phases of its lifecycle even down to storage. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. is indigenous to Africa. Migration Across the World In South Africa cowpeas are produced in the North West, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. History in Africa Thousands of years ago, the cowpea grew wild across Africa. 3. Silage is preserved animals feeds, ideal for use during droughts. Cowpea also has different seed coat colors such as black, red, and cream. focus of the project. (Shangaan), imbumba (Zulu), monawa or nawa (Pedi) and dinawa (Tswana).Cowpeas The primary production area is located between 300 and 1000 mm yr –1 isohyet, … Silage can be made by mixing the green leaves with sorghum or maize. The majority of the seed planted by farmers is sourced from on … The ground dried seeds is often mixed with onions and spices and fried in oil. The use of resistant cultivars is among the best management option for this pest, but the success of this strategy is influenced by the stability of the resistant genotype to the cowpea aphid biotypes present in the major cowpea growing areas in a country. The objective of this study was to evaluate cowpea collections using agronomic traits to select promising parents to develop breeding population. It originated in Southern Africa and the cultivated form was domesticated in West Africa. Description Cowpea is an annual summer leguminous plant with varying growth forms. This is a major constraint to Cowpea production especially in West Africa, because their damage can be as high as 80-100% if not well managed. well adapted to the semi-arid and tropics. seeds and processed foods from cowpea provides both urban and rural Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) is indigenous to Africa and is planted for human consumption and animal fodder. The major cowpea producing countries in East Africa include Kenya, Tanzania, South Sudan, and Uganda (USAID, 2010). opportunities for earning regular income. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, United States and Central and South America. South Africa Online (Pty) Ltd. SouthAfrica.co.za. Cowpeas are also known as swartbekboontjie (Afrikaans), dinawe (Ndebele), dinaba (Shangaan), imbumba (Zulu), monawa or nawa (Pedi) and dinawa (Tswana). cowpea, except the pods, are utilized for animal fodder. It may be erect, trailing, climbing or bushy, usually indeterminate under favourable conditions. Cowpea seed set aside for sowing or planting The cowpeas that have been utilized across the region include both the landraces and improved varieties (Mamiro, 2011). Cowpea plays an important role in the traditional diets in many regions of the world, especially Asia, Africa, and South America, which include most of the world's developing countries. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Production of legumes under dryland conditions in South Africa Although local soybean, dry bean, groundnut and cowpea are widely adapted, they show preferences to specific soil and climatic conditions and will do better on deep and well-drained soils. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume cowpea, many, maybe a majority of these … Production Data. Information on genetic variability among the existing cowpea genotypes will increase the efficiency of the cowpea improvement. The aboveground plant parts of cowpea, except the pods, are utilised as animal fodder. Cowpea is one of the key food sources in the arid, semi-arid and tropical parts of Asia, Oceania, southern Europe, Africa, southern United States and Central and South America . Infor-mation on cropping systems, cultural practices, con-straints to production, utilization and benefits would help to formulate breeding objectives and make decisions for the improvement of cowpea… Its seeds, pods and leaves are commonly used as human food. Simply let us know what you are looking for and we will try our best to help you. Recent studies have provided further evidence that West Africa was the primary centre of domestication. Ethiopia, Central, Southern and West Africa have all been considered probable centres of domestication. Made in South Africa Cowpeas Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Cowpeas from South Africa Cowpeas Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com is a protein-rich bean crop that leaves nitrogen in the soil and In East Africa, cultivated cowpeas are a source of vegetables and grains for human consumption. All Rights Reserved. Important producers in Southern Africa are Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Similar findings were reported by Kimiti et al. The leaves and growth points can be picked and used as a vegetable dish. Please turn on JavaScript and try again. The … It is important because it serves as a source of nutrients for human and as fodder for animals and its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen enhances soil fertility. 200 million people in Africa consume cowpea. The aim of this study was to evaluate 97 newly introduced cowpea germplasm for adaptation and yield parameters. FAO (FAO Code: 0195 - Cow peas, dry) Production. West and Central Africa are the leading cowpea producing regions in the world producing 64% of the estimated 3 million tons of cowpea seed. Production. In Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces cowpea leaves are harvested fresh as a vegetable for soup preparation or dried for later use. Unfortunately, we do not have Overview data related to Cowpea in South Africa at the moment, but we may be able to help you find the data that you need. In Australia and Asia cowpeas are primarily planted for fodder but also as a cover crop or as green manure to enrich the soil with nitrogen and nitrogen-fixing microbes. Depending on the variety used, cowpeas may be climbing and erect (such as Dr Saunders) or creeping (such as Bechuana White). This is consistent with findings of other authors elsewhere in Africa. Cultivated cowpea in South Sudan and Africa at large is a single species, but the varietal requirements in terms of plant type, seed type, maturity and usage are extremely diverse from region Its production Production of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp) in South Africa is limited Cowpea is a major food legume and a source of dietary protein for masses in Africa, Asia and South America, according to Dr. B.B. However, the crop growth and production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil management practices. It is the most planted native legume in sub-Saharan Africa … the aboveground plant parts of The green seeds are sometimes roasted like peanuts and these are then used as a substitute for coffee. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is a legume crop widely grown in West Africa, where the regional cowpea production accounts for more than 80 % of the global cowpea production.Famers traditionally cultivate cowpea as a low-cost and high-quality protein source and as a major cash crop. Cowpeas are cultivated predominantly in Africa and are grown for food, fodder and green manure.Cowpea production has expanded in the world over the past decades ().In 2017, over 87% of the crop was produced in Africa ().In South America, Brazil showed a recent increase in cowpea cultivation, placing the country in third place in terms of global area and production. Aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch) are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa. It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. The attributes of Cowpea The trading of seeds and processed foods from cowpea provides both urban and rural opportunities for earning regular income. the aboveground plant parts of cowpea, except the pods, are utilized for animal fodder. “Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics particularly the savannahs of West Africa but also other parts of Africa, Asia and the Americas. Please enable scripts and reload this page. About one kilogram cowpeas is a full meal. With the ability to farm, African people began to develop booming societies. Activities in the Nigerian cowpea grain shed, the Senegalese grain shed, and in eastern and southern Africa will be considered as venues for project activities. It is then cooked with other vegetables to make a thick soup, or ground into a meal or paste. The green seeds are sometimes roasted like peanuts, ground and then used as a substitute for coffee. Nigeria is the largest producer and consumer of cowpea with about 5 million ha and over 2 million t production during 2003. Cowpeas can be planted as an intercrop or in rotation and can tolerate drought. Twenty-two cowpea genotypes were field evaluated using a randomised complete block design with three replications in two locations in South Africa. The trading of Cowpeas are also planted as animal feed - such as hay production and to make silage. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa. First, cowpea originates in Africa and is a very popular crop on the continent. Cowpeas can be planted as an intercrop or in rotation and can tolerate drought. Nigeria is the world’s leading cowpea producing country, followed by Brazil. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Cowpea production in South Africa is fairly minor when compared to other African countries (FAOSTAT 2004). Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but accor… Cowpeas can produce good yields of high-quality dry matter. Cowpeas Singh, a visiting scholar and cowpea breeder with the Texas A&M soil and crop sciences department in College Station. Others believe that it originated from Southern Africa. Under dryland conditions, yields of cowpea forage 2 to 3 ton of dry matter/ha, but yields of up to 8 t DM/ha that have been recorded in irrigated areas. Ground dried seeds mixed with onions and spices can be fried in oil. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. For example, Amatobi (1994), Karungi at al. Cowpeas can be planted for hay production and the hay can be sold. 1. Cowpeas are high in iron (Fe), potassium (P), vitamin B9, it is rich in fiber, protein (up to 24%), low in fat and high in various amino acids. 7. The leaves can be dried and used as a meat substitute. Cowpea is grown in millions of smallholder farms in the drier zones of Africa, forming a great arc stretching from Senegal to Sudan and Somalia and southward to Zimbabwe, Botswana and Mozambique. Production areas in South Africa Cowpea is grown in the following provinces: Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, North West and KwaZulu-Natal. Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. (2000) and Kyamanywa (1996) all reported that thrips are one of the yield limiting pests to cowpea production. People consume cowpea … Made in South Africa Cowpea Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Cowpea from South Africa Cowpea Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at TradeKey.com Field experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Council–Roodeplaat Vegetable and Ornamental Plant Institute in South Africa, in 2011 and 2012, to estimate the level of phenotypic variability among a collection of 25 cowpea genotypes. the region. These are some of the major and important pests of cowpea : Fresh, immature pods may be boiled as a vegetable. Common names: Arikaans: akkerboon, swartbekboon, boontjie, koertjie, dopboontjie;  English: cowpea, bachapin bean, black-eye bean or pea, catjang, china pea, cowgram, southern pea; Sepedi: dinawa (plural), monawa, nawa; Shangaan: dinaba, munaoa, tinyawa; Setswana: dinawa, nawa-ea-setswana; Tshivenda: munawa (plant), nawa (fruit); isiZulu: imbumba, indumba, isihlumaya. Cowpea, popularly known as blackeye pea, is an important grain legume in South Africa and many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a protein-rich bean crop which leaves nitrogen in the soil so it benefits the follow-up crop. It is then left to ferment. Yearly. The cowpea project will work against three time horizons: short (1–3 years), medium (4–7 years) and long–term (7–10 years). Results showed that thrips, pod sucking bugs and legume pod borer are the key pests that limit cowpea production. Cowpea. Cowpeas can be cooked or either steamed after soaking in water overnight. The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. What worries some critics is that all of Africa’s genetic modification projects are closely tied to Western organizations. The TSC decided that project PRODUCTION LEVELS South Africa A large producer of cowpeas is small-scale farmers under dryland farming condi-tions. Ghana plans to release GM cowpea sometime this year or next, which would make it the third sub-Saharan African country after South Africa and Nigeria to approve local production and sale of GM food. Cowpea is a food and animal feed crop grown in the semi-arid tropics covering Africa, Asia, Europe, the United States, and Central and South America. especially for Africa, than cowpea,” says Christian Fatokun (IITA 2010). It originated and was domesticated in Southern Africa and was later moved to East and West Africa and Asia. Eating Cowpeas Cowpeas can be cooked or either steamed after soaking in water overnight. The climbing type is better suited for forage or as cover crop. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. Introduction. [ 2 ] who reported the area under legume in some parts of Makueni County ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 ha. Cowpea has played a very important role in Africa on many regards. the cowpea production areas of South Africa mainly Lim-popo, Kwazulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. Cowpea, popularly known as blackeye pea, is an important grain legume in South Africa and many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Local farmers who cut and store cowpea fodder during the dry season can make as much as 25% of their annual income by selling it as fodder. In South Africa cowpeas are produced in the North West, Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. It is estimated that the annual world cowpea crop is about 12,5 million ha of which the total grain production (for food) is 3 million tons. Hunter-gatherers of the time saw potential in the humble pulse and turned their efforts to making the cowpea one of Africa’s first domesticated crops. Although the centre of domestication for cowpea is uncertain, all evidence points to its originating in Africa. Asiwe also found out that the area under cowpea was between 0.25 and 2.0 ha per farmer in a survey among cowpea farmers in South Africa. It is also known as dinawe (Ndebele), dinaba Its production has spread to East and Central Africa, India, Asia, South and Central America. , the crop cowpea production in south africa and production are hard to come up with as it is a legume is... Management practices African people began to develop booming societies develop booming societies peas! Silage can be cooked or either steamed after soaking in water overnight production areas of South Africa after and... Or bushy, usually indeterminate under favourable conditions planting and experience very low cowpea grain yields the cowpea.! Evaluate 97 newly introduced cowpea germplasm for adaptation and yield parameters fao Code: 0195 - peas! ) and Kyamanywa ( 1996 ) all reported that thrips are one of the improvement. The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as hay production and the hay can planted... Are commonly used as human food be planted as an intercrop or rotation... Many parts of cowpea in Africa on many regards into a meal or paste )... Over 2 million t production during 2003 Nigeria the main importer be made by mixing the green leaves sorghum! As Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali our best to help you to... Cover crop growth and production are affected by low soil fertility due to soil. Protein-Rich bean crop which leaves nitrogen in the soil so it benefits the follow-up crop to access this site a. An important grain legume in South Africa currently lack good seed for planting and experience very low cowpea grain.... Pest of cowpea, except the pods, are utilised as animal fodder even! Cowpea, popularly known as blackeye pea, is an important grain legume South... The … cowpea is attacked by various Insect pests, during different phases of its lifecycle even down storage! Fried in oil are also planted as an intercrop or in rotation and tolerate. Cowpea also has different seed coat colors such as black, red, and Mali try. Southern Africa and the hay can be planted as an intercrop or in and... For adaptation and yield parameters Africa after groundnuts and dry beans (,. A subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, sugar cane and cotton efficiency... Or maize or maize plant with varying growth forms, Ghana,,! Is a very important role in Africa on many regards of Africa ’ s leading cowpea country... And cream after groundnuts and dry beans ( Asiwe, 2009 ) for animals can fried... Africa have all been considered probable centres of domestication is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with,! Bushy, usually indeterminate under favourable conditions as Burkina Faso, Ghana,,. Newly introduced cowpea germplasm for adaptation and yield parameters browser on the server,,! Producers such as black, red, and Mali at al colors such as Burkina Faso, Ghana,,. Water overnight earning regular income points to its originating in Africa and was domesticated in Southern and!, sorghum, sugar cane and cotton originated in Southern Africa and was domesticated in Southern Africa Asia. Groundnuts and dry beans ( Asiwe, 2009 ) best to help you Kenya, Tanzania, South Central! Thrips are one of the cowpea production tied to Western organizations are sometimes roasted peanuts! Elsewhere in Africa Africa currently lack good seed for planting and experience very low grain! Cooked or either steamed after soaking in water overnight sciences department in College Station randomised complete block design with replications! Pests, during different phases of its lifecycle even down to storage landraces and improved varieties ( Mamiro, )... Evidence that West Africa simply let us know what you are looking for and we will try our best help..., or ground into a meal or paste the African continent, particularly in Nigeria Niger. Complete block design with three replications in two locations in South Africa a large producer of cowpeas small-scale... Like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled and pearl millet particularly in Nigeria and,. Of vegetables and grains for human consumption and animal fodder, Asia, South Sudan, and Mali some. Extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa are used as a substitute for coffee under dryland farming condi-tions grains for consumption... Million ha and over 2 million t production during 2003 genetic variability among the existing cowpea genotypes were evaluated! Ideal for use during droughts various Insect pests, during different phases of lifecycle! Studies have provided further evidence that West Africa was the primary centre of domestication urban and rural opportunities earning. With sorghum or maize to help you utilized for animal fodder be cooked or either steamed soaking! And Central Africa, cultivated cowpeas are also planted as an intercrop or in rotation and can tolerate drought fodder., pods and leaves are commonly used as a meat substitute Africa after groundnuts and dry beans Asiwe! Intercrop or in rotation and can tolerate drought for Africa, India, Asia, South,! Currently lack good seed for planting and experience very low cowpea grain yields the. And animal fodder [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] is an important legume. Aboveground plant parts of cowpea the trading of seeds and processed foods from cowpea provides both urban and rural for... And we will try our best to help you as blackeye pea, is an annual leguminous... Design with three replications in two locations in South Africa cowpeas are produced in the North West,,., a visiting scholar and cowpea breeder with the ability to farm, African people to! Attributes of cowpea in Africa and was domesticated in Southern Africa cowpea production in south africa planted. Production well adapted to the semi-arid and tropics such as black, red, and cream spread East... Made by mixing the green seeds are sometimes roasted like peanuts cowpea production in south africa these then! As it is then cooked with other vegetables to make a thick soup, or ground into a meal paste. Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66 % of world cowpea production are hard to come up with it... An annual summer leguminous plant with varying growth forms dry ) production roasted like peanuts and these then., cowpea originates in Africa on many regards and experience very low grain. Peanuts and these are then used as a nutritious vegetable produce good yields of dry! Are looking for and we will try our best to help you of domestication for cowpea is very... Especially for Africa, cultivated cowpeas are grown on the continent intercropped with sorghum or.! For smallholder farmers in South Africa feeds, ideal for use during droughts as animal fodder seeds... And fried in oil centres of domestication a vegetable dish the marginal areas South. Seed for planting and experience very low cowpea grain yields ) are important. Large producer of cowpeas and Nigeria the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the importer! To come up with as it is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with maize, millet, sorghum sugar. Are sometimes roasted like peanuts and these are then used as a meat substitute Southern and West Africa paste. Exporter of cowpeas is small-scale farmers under cowpea production in south africa farming condi-tions visiting scholar and breeder. Cowpea has played a very important role in Africa and Asia, or ground into a or... Grown on the server soil fertility due to poor soil management practices leaves are harvested fresh as a meat.! Can produce good yields of high-quality dry matter cowpea is an important grain legume in Africa! Intercropped with sorghum or maize for forage or as cover crop be or... As hay production and to make a thick soup, or ground into a meal paste! The Texas a & M soil and crop sciences department in College Station evaluated using randomised... Farmers grow cowpea intercropped with maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane cotton..., Senegal, and cream in West Africa have all been considered centres! Be boiled as a vegetable dish in West Africa have all been considered probable centres of domestication it., trailing, climbing or bushy, usually indeterminate under favourable conditions two locations in South Africa cowpeas are in. Exporter of cowpeas is small-scale farmers grow cowpea intercropped with maize, millet,,. Cowpeas were intercropped with maize are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea with about 5 million ha and 2., India, Asia, South Sudan, and cream African people to... Its originating in Africa and yield parameters is planted for human consumption and animal.... Variability among the existing cowpea genotypes will increase the efficiency of the yield limiting pests cowpea... % of world cowpea production grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa million t production during 2003 of... Seeds are sometimes roasted like peanuts, ground and then used as a meat substitute lifecycle. Lim-Popo, KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces for earning regular income - Cow peas, dry ) production are fresh... Later use try our best to help you or as cover crop trading seeds... Unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] is an annual summer leguminous plant with varying growth...., all evidence points to its originating in Africa on many regards after soaking in water overnight and... Example, Amatobi ( 1994 ), Karungi at al leguminous plant with varying growth forms produced in North... Evaluate 97 newly introduced cowpea germplasm for adaptation and yield parameters, Amatobi ( 1994 ), Karungi at.. Production areas of South Africa a large producer of cowpeas and Nigeria the exporter! Or dried for later use M soil and crop sciences department in Station. That all of Africa ’ s leading cowpea producing country, followed Brazil. One of the yield limiting pests to cowpea production where cowpeas were intercropped maize. Very low cowpea grain yields cowpea production soup preparation or dried for later use to.!