From those ancient times comes a popular proverb “Your tongue will take you to Kiev”. Yet, Leon Trotsky, one of the revolution’s leaders, wrote that Lenin personally ordered the killing, seeing the royals as a banner for the Whites to rally around. Tea was introduced during the 1600’s and the Russians used to traditionally consume sweet cakes and cookies with samovar tea. Gorbachev was reinstated but support had swung over to Yeltsin. The Soviet troops held out against the enormous German army, decimating and wearing it out, until a relieving force encircled the city compelling the invaders to surrender. Vladimir Putin was born in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) on October 7, 1952, the only surviving son of factory workers. The culture of the Slavic tribes on the eve of the ancient Russian state was marked with the creation of the Slavic alphabet by Cyril and Methodius in the middle of the 9th Century. Boris Yeltsin may have left a controversial legacy, but he has unquestionably written his name into Russia’s history forever. Still, during Putin’s eight years in power, his popularity ratings have routinely stayed at around 70 per cent. The Russian capital’s name became the first victim – St. Petersburg was renamed Petrograd. He studied at a theological seminary and had some success as a poet, publishing some of his verse in local newspapers. A popular expression meaning “hoax” has also come to us because of Catherine. Exhausted by the turmoil, in 1613 the nobles chose Mikhail Romanov, one of the closest surviving relatives of the royal family, as Tsar. His father spent several years in Stalin’s labour camps – Yeltsin joined the Communist Party only during Khrushchev’s anti-Stalinist reforms. They held out for two months, until they were relieved by counter-attacking Soviet forces. In the run-up to the presidential election on March 2, 2008 he supported First Deputy Prime Minister and gas giant Gazprom’s chairman Dmitry Medvedev as his preferred successor and agreed to head the government as prime minister if Medvedev won. After his eight years in power, that much is known about Vladimir Putin. In 882 Prince Oleg of Novgorod seized Kiev, thereby uniting the northern and southern lands of the Eastern Slavs under one authority. The changes affected the foreign policy and the openness of society to the rest of the world, processes of Perestroika have altered the institutions of government, and Glasnost (openness) pushed the boundaries of freedom of expression and freedom of conscience. Putin declared Russia’s ties with the other CIS members a priority, but the relationship is driven by sound pragmatism as Moscow imposed market-level energy prices for its ex-Soviet neighbours. Although a self-proclaimed atheist, Gorbachev also denounced 70 years of religious oppression. The story goes that its ruler at the time, Prince Vladimir, wanted to replace paganism with a new religion. Meanwhile, at home, life was tough. Brezhnev is usually remembered as ailing and mumbling – the target of a zillion Soviet anecdotes. Kutuzov withdrew his exhausted forces, while the Muscovites started a massive and panicked retreat. The last years of his rule were marked by a growing personality cult, widely seen as hollow and cynical. After his resignation Yeltsin made few public appearances, making an exception only for tennis tournaments, energetically cheering on Russian players. Yeltsin’s opponents barricaded themselves in the parliament building – now home of Russia’s government – and tried to take control of the television station. Areas captured by the Wehrmacht troops by day, were re-taken by the Soviet army at night. See also the list of leaders of Russia. Another story says that the threat he implied was a very concrete one – a Soviet hydrogen super bomb developed at the time. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. But when the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, his assignment also ended. Brief History of Japan. To read about the background to these events, see History of Russia. If you’re wondering how or why a part of your body would transport you to a European capital, here’s the story. In 1946, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill warned of an “iron curtain” as Stalin was turning most of eastern and central Europe into Soviet satellite states. But when he first burst onto Russia’s political scene, for many, Putin was very much a mystery. Brief History of Spain. The man who put an end to the USSR was raised to power by Mikhail Gorbachev. In August 1991 hard-liners had had enough. He failed to graduate, becoming a revolutionary activist instead, with several arrests and spells in Siberia. Fascinated by all things European, he spent almost two years touring Western Europe – the first time a Russian Tsar ever went abroad. The February Revolution took him by surprise – he found out about it from newspapers and immediately wanted to return. Russia is a large, ancient, and cultured country that has been a main player in the history of the world for a long time. His popularity had plummeted while the newly-revived Communist Party enjoyed a surge in support. Brezhnev tries again: “Dear comrade imperialists.”. Speaking of the “advancing pig”, the medieval Russian chronicles referred to the marching Teutonic knights. St. Petersburg owes to her one of its most famous landmarks – the “Bronze Horseman”, a statue of Peter the Great on the banks of the Neva River. Finland did not take part in World War I, but nationalism also had an inf… Donskoy became a popular hero and the words “the slaughter of Mamai” now mean a carnage or terrible defeat. His time in office was also marked by a series of high-profile international crises – the shooting down of an American U2 spy-plane over the Soviet Union in 1960, the building of the notorious Berlin Wall in 1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. The story goes that the Germans decided to send a super-sniper of their own to kill him. The Romanov dynasty was to rule Russia for the next 300 years until the 1917 Revolution brought an end to the Tsarist state. Towards the end of the century the ancient state of the Slavs faced with the north expansion of the Khazar Khanate and the imposition of tribute on the Slavic tribes of Polyants, Severian, Vyatichi, and Radimichi. Three decades later, Mikhail Gorbachev made it to the top as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MOSCOW, RUSSIA. Shaped in the 9th century it went on to flourish for the next 300 years. The territory occupied by Mongolian tribes, stretched from lake Baikal, the upper reaches of Yenisei River and Irtysh River in the north down to the southern regions of the Gobi Desert. Stalin’s policies quickly propelled the USSR from an agricultural state to a major industrial powerhouse. With Mikhail Gorbachev coming to power in 1985, the country's development vector has changed even more dramatically than in the times of Peter the Great. But the war on vodka largely failed. The concept of the Russian Empire originated with Peter the Great, and it began with grandiose reforms that country has never seen before. Trotsky was dismissed as commissar of war in 1925 and banished from the Soviet U… Severe shortages of basic food supplies led to the reintroduction of the war-time system of rationing. Moscow hit back, establishing an Eastern counterpart, dubbed the Warsaw Pact. But Russia’s elite groups are working at a whole other level. The first modern state in Russia was founded in 862 by King Rurik of the Rus, who was made the ruler of Novgorod. In 1968, Soviet tanks rolled into Prague, crushing a brief wave of political liberalisation known as the Prague Spring. He shelled his way out of the conflict but the tanks were needed again a year later when the southern republic of Chechnya wanted to break away. Khrushchev also gave the world the KGB. Peter the Great is the historical figure he most admires. Their so-called Belavezha Accords put an end to the USSR, replacing it with the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In 1914, the First World War brought another crisis. Chekist chic was revived by some young Russian designers. Meanwhile, the USSR was setting scientific and technological records. The Polish troops set out to kill the newly-chosen Tsar who was hiding in a remote village. Against the advice of his generals, with the Germans pushing on, Stalin held a military parade in Red Square on November 7 to mark the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. Expelled from university for his radical ideas, Lenin completed his law degree as an external student. The two neighboring countries have been intertwined for over 1,000 years of tumultuous history. A year later he emerged as the first elected president of the Russian Federal Republic within the USSR. With Gorbachev on vacation in the Crimea, they attempted a coup. As Yeltsin’s body lay in state, thousands gathered to pay their last respects. This is where things get tricky. The same year, the Soviet Union detonated its first atomic bomb, ending the U.S. monopoly on nuclear weaponry and kicking off the arms race. Wanting to break the power of the Russian Orthodox Church, the government promoted atheism and party members were forbidden to attend religious services. After the Soviet Union ceased to exist in 1992, a phase of self-formation occurred in republics of the former Soviet Union and the largest one, the Russian Federation, which was the basis of both the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union, have embarked upon the construction of a market economy. For example, Helsinki city centre was built during Russian rule. In 1721 the Russians and Swedes made peace. Khrushchev was notorious for his eccentric outbursts. Several recent studies suggest a total of around 20 million people. Russia is currently engaged in a number of military endeavors in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, many of which are controversial and seen Russian actions frowned upon by many members of the United Nations (UN) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). He ruthlessly suppressed a 1956 uprising in Hungary against Soviet-imposed policies. Support for the already unpopular government dwindled. In 1957 the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The crushing defeat at Stalingrad was unmatched in scale, spurring the Soviet drive towards victory… In May 1945 Berlin finally fell. They set up headquarters in the winter residence of the Russian Tsars – the Winter Palace. Modern historians still argue about the truth behind the story, but the tale is generally considered largely exaggerated. Meanwhile, Moscow replaced Kiev as the new centre of spiritual and political power, becoming the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Three months later, Yeltsin’s protégé won the presidential ballot. The phrase “Potemkin villages” refers to fake settlements set up by order of Prince Grigory Potemkin to fool the Empress during her visit to the Crimea in 1787. By February 1917 many workers had had enough. By 1964, Khrushchev had alienated much of the Soviet elite and was ousted by opponents led by Leonid Brezhnev. The Soviet past was left well behind. After several narrow escapes, Alexander II was fatally wounded in 1881 by a bomb in St. Petersburg. The Bolsheviks introduced free universal health care, education and social security benefits. For the next six years, “Gorby” would make headlines around the globe. But when the Russians speak of “cutting a window through to Europe” they refer to Peter’s reforms – and mean a breakthrough or progress. However, he soon grew weary of the pace of “perestroika”. Russia emerged from the war more powerful than ever. The original name was seen as too German; Petrograd was chosen as a more Russian-sounding and patriotic one. He returned to Leningrad and in August 1991, during the KGB-supported failed coup against Gorbachev, quit the security services altogether. The Soviet losses were so great that, at times, the life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day. A successful warrior and diplomat, he transformed the military, the administration and tax system, spurring Russia’s industrialization. In March 1990 Gorbachev became the President of the Soviet Union, the first and only man to hold the rank. 2  Russia claimed it was protecting its port access to the Black Sea. A Storied Start. A Brief History of Brazil. A star at school, he gained a law degree from Moscow State University in 1955 and embarked on a party career. A Brief History of Thailand. The date has become a national holiday – Victory Day – and is commemorated in a grand military parade on Red Square. Many great and horrible rulers have also ruled over this piece of land. In 1954, the USSR’s bid to join NATO was rejected. The architect of modern Russia, he’s praised for leading the country onto the path to democracy and opening it to the world. But Gorbachev was determined to shake up the moth-eaten bureaucracy and mouldy economy. Then, an advisor walks over and points to the speech for Brezhnev. The following hundred years witnessed a struggle with the Scandinavian kingdoms in the Northern and Northwestern borders and accession by Russia lands in the lower reaches of the Volga River, the Northern Caucasus, and Siberia. The family’s only claim to fame came from Putin’s paternal grandfather who cooked for Lenin and Stalin. Lenin decided that a partial return to a market economy would help the country rebound. Moscow largely reassumed control but deadly attacks by Chechen terrorists rocked Russia. The infamous shoe-banging incident became one of history’s iconic symbols. The last Soviet leader was born into a peasant family on March 2, 1931 in southern Russia. Russia gained Estonia and land around the Gulf of Finland. Political purges had stripped the army of many of its experienced leaders while industrial production was slow in adapting to military needs. The parade had a tremendous impact on morale in Moscow and throughout the Soviet Union, becoming the turning point of the war. He witnessed the horrors of famine, the arrest of both his grandfathers and the German occupation. Nearly forty years passed before a comparably ambitious and ruthless ruler gained the Russian throne – Catherine II, often known as Catherine the Great. Peter assumed the title of Emperor and Russia officially became the Russian Empire in 1721. He relaxes by listening to Tchaikovsky. Ivan’s son died childless and a string of would-be-successors battled it out for the throne. Critics have accused Putin of trading in freedom for security as he tightened the grip on the media and muted the opposition. This war seemed to have a whole palette of colours: independent groups like the Green and the Black armies declared themselves against both the Reds and Whites. Since the second half of the 14th Century, the unification process begins, having a major driving force of steady defeat of main political rivals by Moscow principality in the Sixties and Seventies of that century. Often ill-at-ease with protocol, Yeltsin was remembered for his gaffes and off-hand jokes. Over the next nine years, at tremendous human and financial cost, St. Petersburg sprang up. The country has passed the stage of industrialization, developing light and heavy industry, metallurgy and high-tech industries, including space shipbuilding resulted in manned space expeditions. So October 25 became November 7. It has been celebrated annually on June 12 since 1992 to commemorate the adoption of the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) on June 12, 1990. Given strict limitations on the movement of foreigners in the USSR, seeing less perfect examples was out of the question. They retreated, devastating the land behind them. In 1913 he adopted the name Stalin, derived from the Russian word “stal” (steel). On behalf of one of their principal tribes, the Mongols also wore the name of Tatars. There followed a whole string of firsts: Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space on April 12, 1961; Valentina Tereshkova – the first woman in space two years later; soon after Alexey Leonov completed the first spacewalk. But soon a new leader would change it all…. Radical market-oriented reforms and massive privatisation shook a country that was used to state control. The Russian language has become a source of cultural history, being at that time very similar to other Slavic languages. From day one the Soviet government was based on the one-party rule of the Communist Party that the Bolsheviks eventually transformed into. The great city of Moscow was first mentioned in writing in 1147. To impress her and her party, Potemkin had elaborate fake settlements constructed along the desolated banks of the Dnieper River, with flocks of sheep driven every night to the next stop along the route. Until the early thirties of the Thirteenth Century, the Mongol-Tatars engaged in wars in China and Central Asia, strategically explored the future theater of military invasions, and collected information on the political situation and economic and military capabilities of European countries. The German crusaders were defeated in a fight on Lake Peipus, between modern Estonia and Russia. A shaky coalition of political parties was formed, declaring itself the Provisional Government. A recent Russian video game even featured Chapaev saving the Galaxy from aliens. He studied law at Leningrad State University and after his graduation joined the KGB. On October 25, led by Vladimir Lenin, they seized power – their assault on the Winter Palace became the defining moment of the October revolution. However, in 1709 the Swedes invaded Ukraine and were crushed at the Battle of Poltava. On New Year’s Eve 1999, Yeltsin surprised his country and the world by announcing his resignation, leaving the power in the hands of the little-known Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. That day the Soviet air force managed the unimaginable – not a single bomb was dropped on the capital. Brezhnev was well known for his weakness for flattery and love affairs with medals – the final count stands at 114. The country entered a decade-long standstill, its rigid economy slowly weakening and its political climate growing increasingly pessimistic. That’s how Nikita’s tongue took him home. Hoping to exploit the Russians’ weakness after the Tatar invasion, the Teutonic Knights attacked the city of Novgorod. But in December 1825 a group of young army officers – later called the Decembrists – attempted a coup. Putin quickly rose as the mayor’s right-hand man. But it didn’t dent his belief in socialism. Yeltsin’s Russia saw a huge religious revival and media boom. Their number shifted over the years, finally settling at 15. Brief History of Morocco. According to the Soviet version of history, it was the turning point in Lenin’s life. Boris Yeltsin guided Russia through a time of great change and challenge. We aspire through our work to improve U.S.-Russia relations and to promote Russian business and technological development. When he was 17 his elder brother Alexander was hanged for taking part in a failed plot against Tsar Alexander III. Peter went on to modernise Russia’s military and administrative structure, simplify the alphabet, change the calendar and make a myriad other sweeping changes. By now everyone’s in shock – was he trying to call them imperialists? But Alexander’s extraordinary battle to push his country forward was too much for some and not enough for others. Being married for almost sixty years didn’t stop Brezhnev from having numerous conquests. You’d have a hard job finding a Russian who’s never heard of Ivan Susanin, now a popular character in Russian music and literature. And although the name stayed, “the Great October Socialist Revolution” continued to be celebrated on the 7th of November. Across the country, people mourned the passing of the man they knew as the Great Leader who steered them to victory in the Great Patriotic War. Why there’s no shortage of women in technology in Russia, For Russia With Love, Trump Is Right And The Congress Is Wrong About Sanctions, UN Global Compact Leaders Summit 2020: the private and public sectors came together, Russian “Sail of Hope” in the United Nations, New York, Russia to invite US to International Army Games next year, UN Global Compact Leaders Summit 2020: the private and…, LAMPA Film Festival in the United Nations, Tulsi Gabbard sues Hillary Clinton for defamation over…. His marvel of a strategic retreat through the Alps earned him the top rank of generalissimo. Instead, Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra and their five children were shot in the early hours of July 17, 1918 in the basement of Ipatyev House in the city of Yekaterinburg. A brief history of Medieval Russia, Kievan Rus and the Republic of Novgorod. In the 1990s, the Russian media system underwent major transformations following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Brief History Of Russia Several people, including Asian Huns, Turkish Avars, and Asian Huns, invaded Russia over many centuries. Putin landed a job in Boris Yeltsin’s administration and within two years was heading the KGB’s successor, the Federal Security Service (FSB). Putin stepped up Russia’s invasion of the breakaway republic of Chechnya, promising to grind down the militants. At the beginning of the Eighth Century the resettlement of Slavonic tribes began in the upper basins of the Dnieper, Western Dvina, and Upper Volga Rivers. Brief History of Moscow. In August 2000 the royal family was canonised by the Russian Orthodox Church. By the time Nicholas II came to power in 1894, Russia’s growing industrialisation had produced a revolutionary socialist movement that was growing in strength. As Catherine sailed past, she saw lively colourful villages – in reality nothing more than theatrical sets. But things worsened after the start of the Soviet War in Afghanistan in 1979 and the election the following year of Ronald Reagan, a staunch anti-communist, to the U.S. presidency. A popular joke said the reason Brezhnev’s speeches ran for hours was because he read not just the original but also the carbon copy. Ironically, he went on to depose his mentor and destroy his empire. After decades of Communism, when Russia and the USSR were often seen as one and the same, the 1990s were an attempt to forge a new identity. But Vladimir finally decided against it because he thought his people would be unhappy under a religion that prohibits wine. Stalin’s 1935 phrase “Life’s become better. Joseph Stalin emerged victorious and went on to rule the Soviet Union for a quarter of a century, becoming one of the most powerful and murderous dictators in history. Another Stalingrad legend was sniper Vasily Zaitsev. Nowadays, pronounced with a good deal of irony, the aphorism means you want to do things differently from your colleagues and predecessors to get better results. By Serguei Shcheglov on April 25 2017 in Society. The empire is traditionally seen as the beginning of Russia and the ancestor of Belarus and Ukraine. It lasted for 900 days, from September 1941 to January 1944. When Brezhnev died in 1982, aged 75, the Soviet Union itself had less than 10 years to live. Back from those restless times Russia inherited, of all things, a name for bad tour-guides. Some historians believe Lenin was a real person whose passport Vladimir Ulyanov used. An estimated 18 million people passed through the Gulag system, famously described by novelist and historian Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. Leningrad’s horrific siege was one of the most lethal in world history. During the Russian rule, Finland became a special region developed by order of the Emperor. Leon Trotsky, one of his key opponents, who saw himself as Lenin’s heir apparent, was thrown out of the Communist Party and exiled. Early Moscow. The passage of this Declaration by the First Congress of People’s Deputies marked the beginning of constitutional reform in the Russian Soviet state. A hostage crisis in a crowded Moscow theatre in 2002 and a massacre in a school in Beslan, North Ossetia, in September 2004 made headlines around the globe. Moscow also moved to assert its position on the post-Soviet space. October 12, 1960 saw perhaps the stormiest United Nations session ever. After his return, Peter embarked on an ambitious programme to transform Russia into a European state. One by one, their governments collapsed in a string of anti-communist revolutions, culminating in the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. The socialist system was in dire need of reform because of accumulated problems in the national economy, foreign policy, cold war and human rights abuses associated with ideological intolerance of ruling elite. After the Crimean military campaign, led by Potemkin, Catherine had come to inspect the newly-conquered lands, accompanied by courtiers and foreign ambassadors. The number of people killed under Stalin’s regime remains hard to tally. However, Peter was less successful against the Turks. Regarded as intelligent and cunning, but lacking education, he regularly humiliated Soviet political elites with his gaffes. The key players were the Red Army organised by the Bolsheviks and the White movement made up of Russia’s political and military forces that opposed them. It was necessary to establish production of all industrial levels to meet the needs of the army. Exhausted by the war, people embraced jazz, nightclubs and foreign movies. 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